I   Home    I    Nursing   I    Cancer   I    Equipment   I    Gadget   I    First Aid   I    Medical PDA   I    Contact   I    Career   I

Monday, August 20, 2007

Autism or Autistic Spectrum Disorder

What is Autism? Autism also called as Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is one of Pervasive developmental disorder (PDD). Autism is brain development disorder that begins in early childhood and persists throughout adulthood, and autism usually diagnosed when a child is three years old.

In the some case, Autism can be detected on the early 18 months of age. Autism characterized by varying degrees of impairment in communication skills, social interactions, and restricted, repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior.

The children those diagnosed as autism are often called autistic disorder, childhood autism, or infantile autism. Parent are commonly be the first to notice unusual behaviors in their child. Some research has shown that parents are usually correct about noticing developmental problems, although they may not reported the specific nature or degree of the problem.

Read more...!

Causes of Autism

Many of research's group are collecting data about autism case, but until now there is no exact causes of autism was reported. Recently, genetic and environmental factors are being studied as possible causative factors.

Environmental, metabolic, and immunologic factors are support to the development of the disorder in child who diagnosed as autism. Heritability contributes about 90% of the risk of a child developing autism, but the genetics of autism are complex and typically it is unclear which genes are responsible as causes of autism.

Research has reported that the Autism is probably caused by Genetic, Bad Parenting, Obstetric Complication, Deficiency of Immune System and Vaccination (MMR):
  • Autism Cause by genetic.
    A genetic contribution to the development of autism has been hypothesized, many studies have shown that the parents from families with autistic members are more likely to have autistic children. A large-scale research study conducted by a team based at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) in Long Island, N.Y reported that a combination of heredity and spontaneous genetic mutation is at the root of most cases of autism.

    Other studies also have demonstrated that some asymptomatic first-degree relatives of some probands with autism have abnormalities in serotonin and other chemicals similar to the probands with autism.

  • Autism Cause by Bad Parenting.
    How many years ago, Dr. Kanner, the man who first identified autism as a unique condition, made a researchers hypothesized that infantile autism resulted from rejection of the infant by cold parents ("refrigerator mothers").

    But he was wrong, many of careful family studies have disproved that the development of autistic disorder in children is due to faulty parenting.

  • Autism Cause by Obstetric Complication.
    Some opinion they say that may be the autism associated with an obstetric complication, also this is not clear argument.

  • Autism Caused by Atypical Brain Development.
    A child with autism has difference size of brain (large) compared to the others child that who has normal life. On the autism case also their brains are more "wired", This research recently ongoing at the University of Pittsburgh.

  • Autism Cause by Deficiency of Immune System.
    Some research reported that the autism can be cause by other physical issues related to immune deficiency. This is not yet strong enough to show the causes of autism.

  • Autism Caused by Vaccination (MMR).
    Another reasearch suggested that the MMR (measles, mumps and rubella) vaccination may have been one possible environmental trigger that led to intestinal abnormalities, resulting in impaired intestinal function and developmental regression.

  • Read more...!

    Sunday, August 19, 2007

    Sign and Symptom of Autism

    Children who diagnosed as autism generally have problems in three crucial areas of development that was known as characterize autism. Autistic children have difficulties with social interaction, problems with verbal and nonverbal communication, and repetitive behaviors or narrow, obsessive interests.

    Signs and symptoms of autism are measurable by certain screening tools at 18 months of age, because mostly child's development appears normal in this range. After that become regresses rapidly (loss of social or communication skills) and it is usually diagnosed as autism by the age of 3.

    Symptoms of autism are vary widely, in where from two children with the same diagnosis may act quite differently and have strikingly different skills.

  • Sign of autism on the infants often display abnormal reactions to sensory stimuli, smile and look at others less often, touches may be experienced as painful, bright lights may cause inconsolable crying and respond less to their own name.

    The others sign of autism on the infant are may appears indifferent to surroundings, happier to play alone, displays lack of interest in toys, does not point out objects of interest to others (called protodeclarative pointing) ect.

  • In the young children with autism, mostly have impaired language development. They are having a difficulty to expressing their needs and may laugh, cry, or show distress for unknown reasons.

    Sign and Symptoms of autism may increase in severity when the child enters adolescence and this behavior usually decrease in severity during adulthood.

  • Read more...!

    Autism Treatment

    As you know that the Autism is a developmental disorders on the children, Until now there is no single treatment for the autism's case. Therapies and behavioral interventions are designed to remedy specific symptoms and can bring about substantial improvement.

    When the child has been evaluated and diagnosed with an autism disorders, early behavioral interventions are need for them to help children acquire self-care, social, communication (language skills) and job skills. Special education programs and behavior therapy should be given with intensive care to the children who known develop of autism.

    Special education programs and behavior therapy for the autism was introduce by many of group society such as :
  • TEACCH (Treatment and Education of Autistic and related Communication Handicapped CHildren) program. The goal of autism's treatment in this programs are to improve child in visual-spatial understanding, object manipulation, and enjoyment of highly structured, independent, and routine activities.

  • The Denver Model, these is an autism's treatment method by using emphasizes development of play skills, interpersonal relationships, positive affect, and language development.

  • The peer-mediated learning of Strain, Odom, and colleagues. These is an early treatment for the autism case by Learning Experiences Method's system. They will demonstrates a convergence of developmental and normal behavior in the children to the group of child who was diagnosed as autism.

  • The Greenspan and Wieder’s model, type of autism treatment that focus to the social communication intervention.

  • Medications for the autism :
    Usually to the child who has been evaluated and diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorders (ASD) the doctor prescribe an antidepressant medication to handle symptoms of anxiety, depression, or obsessive-compulsive disorder.

    Anti-psychotic medications are often used to treat severe behavioral problems on the autism patient, anticonvulsant drugs also important for the Seizures treatment. Children those have attention deficit disorder (ADD), mostly will get Stimulant drugs to help decrease impulsivity and hyperactivity.

    Read more...!